Yiziphi izici ezithinta ukulingana okufanelekile?

Inhloso yokuzala kufanelekile ukwenza indandatho yangaphakathi noma indandatho yangaphandle iqiniswe nge-shaft noma igobolondo, ukuze kugwenywe i-axial noma i-sliding ehambisanayo ebusweni obufanayo.

Lolu hlobo lokuslayida okungathandeki (olubizwa ngokuthi ukunyakaza) luzodala ukushisa okungajwayelekile, ukugqoka indawo yokukhwelana (okuzokwenza impuphu yensimbi egugile ihlasele ingaphakathi lokuthwala) nokudlidliza, okuzokwenza ukuthwala kungakwazi ukudlala indima ephelele.

Ngakho-ke, ngamabheringi, ngenxa yokujikeleza kokulayisha, ngokuvamile kuyadingeka ukuthi indandatho iphazanyiswe, ukuze ibambeke ngokuqinile nge-shaft noma igobolondo.

Ukubekezelelana ntathu shaft nezindlu

Ukubekezelelana okukodwa komgodi nendlu yezindlu yochungechunge lwe-metric kubekwe eceleni yi-GB / t275-93 "rolling bearings and shaft and housing fit". Ukulingana kokuthwala kanye ne-shaft noma izindlu kunganqunywa ngokukhetha ukubekezelelana okukodwa.

Ukukhethwa kokulingana okufanelekile

Ukukhethwa kokulingana kufanelekile kwenziwa ngokwemigomo elandelayo.

Ngokwesiqondiso nobunjalo bomthwalo osebenza ekuthwalweni nokuthi yiluphi uhlangothi lwamasongo angaphakathi nangaphandle ajikelezayo, umthwalo othwalwa yiringi ngayinye ungahlukaniswa ngomthwalo ojikelezayo, umthwalo we-tuli noma umthwalo ongahambisi. Ukulingana okungaguquguquki (ukungenelela kokulingana) kufanele kwamukelwe umthwalo ojikelezayo we-ferrule nomthwalo ongasiwo wokuqondisa, futhi ukulingana kokushintshela noma ukulingana okunamandla (imvume yokungena) enesibalo esincane kungasetshenziselwa iringi ethwele umthwalo omile.

Lapho ukuthwala umthwalo kukhulu noma kuthwala ukudlidliza nomthwalo womthelela, ukuphazamiseka kwawo kufanele kukhuphuke. Lapho kusetshenziswa i-shaft engenalutho, ibhokisi lokuthwala eli-Thin-wall noma i-alloy light noma ibhokisi lepulasitiki elisetshenziswayo, ukuphazamiseka nakho kufanele kwandiswe.

Lapho kudingeka ukujikeleza okuphezulu, kufanele kusetshenziswe ukunemba okuphezulu okuhlanganisiwe, futhi ukunemba okuyisilinganiso komgodi nebhokisi lokufaka ibhokisi kuzothuthukiswa ukugwema ukuphazamiseka ngokweqile. Uma ukuphazamiseka kukhulu kakhulu, i-geometry yendandatho ethwele ingathinteka ngokunemba kwejometri kushaft noma ibhokisi lokuthwala, ngaleyo ndlela kulimaze ukunemba kokujikeleza kokuthwala.

Uma izindandatho zangaphakathi nezangaphandle zamabheringi angahlukaniseki (njengamabombo we-deep groove ball) zisebenzisa i-static fit, kuzoba nzima kakhulu ukufaka nokuqaqa amabheringi. Kungcono ukusebenzisa ukulingana okunamandla ohlangothini olulodwa lwamasongo angaphakathi nangaphandle.

1) Ithonya lezakhiwo zomthwalo

Umthwalo wokuthwala ungahlukaniswa ube ngumthwalo ojikelezayo wendandatho yangaphakathi, umthwalo wokujikeleza wendandatho yangaphandle nomthwalo ongahambisi ngokuya ngemvelo yawo Ubudlelwano phakathi kokuthwala umthwalo nokulingana kungabhekisa kuzinga elihambisanayo lokuthwala.

2) Ithonya losayizi wokulayisha

Ngaphansi kwesenzo somthwalo osabalalayo, ukuqondiswa kwe-radius kweringi yangaphakathi kuyacindezelwa futhi kunwetshwe, futhi umjikelezo uvame ukwanda kancane, ngakho-ke ukuphazamiseka kokuqala kuzoncishiswa. Ukwehliswa kokuphazamiseka kungabalwa ngale ndlela elandelayo:

lapha:

⊿ DF: ukunciphisa ukuphazamiseka kwendandatho yangaphakathi, mm

d: Ukuthwala ubukhulu obungaphakathi obungaphakathi, mm

B: Okuzisholo iringi yangaphakathi ububanzi, mm

Fr: radial load, n {KGF}

Co: umthwalo oyisisekelo olinganisiwe we-static, n {KGF}

Ngakho-ke, lapho umthwalo osabalalayo ungumthwalo osindayo (ngaphezu kuka-25% wenani le-CO), ukufaniswa kufanele kube kuqine kakhulu kunokulayishwa okulula.

Uma kwenzeka umthwalo womthelela, ukulingana kufanele kuqinise.

3) Ithonya lobukhulu bendawo

Uma kubhekwa ukuguqulwa kwepulasitiki kwendawo yokukhwelana, ukuphazamiseka okusebenzayo kuthintwa yikhwalithi yokuchofoza yobuso bokukhwelana, obungacaciswa ngale ndlela elandelayo:

[umgodi wokugaya]

Ffdeff = (d / (d + 2)) * ......d ...... (3)

[ukujika shaft]

Ffdeff = (d / (d + 3)) * ......d ...... (4)

lapha:

Ff deff: ukuphazamiseka okusebenzayo, mm

D: ukuphazamiseka okubonakalayo, mm

d: Ukuthwala ubukhulu obungaphakathi obungaphakathi, mm

4) Ithonya lokushisa lokuthwala

Ngokuvamile, izinga lokushisa lokuthwala liphakeme kunezinga lokushisa elizungezile ngesikhathi sokushintshana okunamandla, futhi izinga lokushisa lendandatho yangaphakathi liphakeme kunezinga lokushisa kushaft lapho ukuthwala kuzungeza ngomthwalo, ngakho ukuphazamiseka okusebenzayo kuzoncishiswa ngokwandiswa okushisayo.

Uma umehluko wezinga lokushisa phakathi kokuthwala kwangaphakathi negobolondo langaphandle kungu-⊿ T, kungacatshangwa ukuthi umehluko wezinga lokushisa phakathi kwendandatho yangaphakathi kanye nomphimbo wobuso bokumatanisa ucishe ube (0.01-0.15) ⊿ t. Ngakho-ke, ukunciphisa ukuphazanyiswa ⊿ DT okubangelwa umehluko wezinga lokushisa kungabalwa ngefomula 5

⊿dt = (0.10 kuya ku-0.15) *t * α * d

0.0015⊿t * d * 0.01 ...... (5)

lapha:

⊿ DT: ukunciphisa ukuphazamiseka okubangelwa umehluko wezinga lokushisa, mm

Difference T: umehluko wezinga lokushisa phakathi kwangaphakathi kokuthwala nokuzungezwa kwegobolondo, ℃

α: Umugqa wokukhulisa wokulingana wensimbi ethwala ngu (12.5 × 10-6) 1 / ℃

d: Ukuthwala ubukhulu obungaphakathi obungaphakathi, mm

Ngakho-ke, lapho izinga lokushisa lokuthwala liphakeme kunezinga lokushisa, ukulingana kufanele kube kuqinile.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngenxa yomehluko wokwehluka kwamazinga okushisa noma Coefficient yokwanda okuqondile phakathi kwendandatho yangaphandle negobolondo langaphandle, kwesinye isikhathi ukuphazamiseka kuzokwanda. Ngakho-ke, kufanele kunakwe ekusetshenzisweni kokuslayida phakathi kwendandatho yangaphandle nendawo yokuhlangana kwezindlu ukugwema ukwanda okushisayo komshini.

5) Ubuningi bokucindezeleka kwangaphakathi kokuthwala okubangelwa ukulingana

Lapho ukufakwa kufakwa nokungena kokuphazanyiswa, iringi izokwanda noma inciphe, ngaleyo ndlela kuveze ukucindezeleka.

Lapho ingcindezi inkulu kakhulu, kwesinye isikhathi indandatho iyanqamuka, edinga ukunakwa.

Ukucindezela okukhulu kwangaphakathi kokuthwala okukhiqizwe ngokufaniswa kungabalwa ngefomula kuThebula 2. Njengenani lesethenjwa, ukuphazamiseka okuphezulu akudluli ku-1/1000 wobubanzi be-shaft, noma ukucindezela okuphezulu σ okutholwe kwifomula yokubala ku Ithebula 2 alikho ngaphezu kwe-120MPa {12kgf / mm2}.

Ukucindezela okukhulu kwangaphakathi kokuthwala okubangelwa ukulingana

lapha:

stress: Ukucindezela okukhulu, i-MPA {kgf / mm2}

d: Unobubanzi obuqokiwe obungaphakathi (ubukhulu be-shaft), mm

Di: iringi yangaphakathi yomjaho wobubanzi, mm

Ukuthwala ibhola Di = 0.2 (D + 4d)

I-Roller equkethe i-Di = 0.25 (D + 3d)

Ff deff: ukuphazamiseka okusebenzayo kwendandatho yangaphakathi, mm

Yenza: i-radius ye-shaft engenalutho, mm

De: ububanzi bomgwaqo ongaphandle, mm

Ukuthwala ibhola = = 0.2 (4D + d)

I-Roller bearing De = 0.25 (3D + d)

D: Ukunikeza ububanzi obungaphandle (ubukhulu begobolondo), mm

Ff deff: ukuphazamiseka okusebenzayo kwendandatho yangaphandle, mm

I-DH: ububanzi obungaphandle begobolondo, mm

E: I-modulus enwebekayo ingu-2.08 × 105Mpa {21200kgf /


Isikhathi Iposi: Dec-18-2020